Program konference Nasilje v družini pri izobraženkah
Poročilo iz konference
Projekt: Nasilje v družini pri izobraženkah (Domestic Violence Met by Educated Women)
Vseživljenjsko učenje EU, projekt Grundtvig: učna partnerstva – Zaključno srečanje 9. maja 2015
Odprava nasilja v družini je tudi pri izobraženkah odgovornost vseh Evropejcev
Nasilje v družini, ki prizadeva ženske – tudi izobraženke – je problem v vseh državah, udeleženkah projekta, in sicer na Finskem, v Nemčiji, Romuniji, Sloveniji in na Švedskem. Nekdanje komunistične države, ki so ekonomsko šibkejše, imajo manj sredstev za obravnavanje nasilja na državni in socialni ravni.
Udeleženke projekta iz teh držav soglašajo z naslednjimi trditvami:
Osnova za spremembo zakonodaje v vseh državah Evropske unije je Istanbulska konvencija. Finska in Švedska sta svoje predpise že prilagodili, Nemčija pa je proces začela leta 2011. Priporočljivo in zelo zaželeno je, da konvencijo ratificirajo parlamenti vseh držav.
- Enako plačilo za enako delo zvišuje ekonomsko neodvisnost žensk in s tem znižuje tveganje, da postanejo žrtve nasilja. Razlike v plačilu so v nekaterih državah še vedno skrb zbujajoče.
- Ne glede na kulturne razlike in tradicijo si je treba stalno prizadevati za odpravo nasilja v družbi, čemur se posvečajo nevladne organizacije kot nosilke zavedanja, da gre pri tem poleg čustveno-psihološkega tudi za ekonomski in družbeni problem, ki prizadene vse generacije. Na pristojnih ministrstvih v vladah naj se tej problematiki nameni več pozornosti, prav tako se morajo vključiti mediji in s pozitivnimi zgledi prikazati in nakazati rešitve tega stanja.
- Udeleženke projekta predlagajo večjo zavzetost Evropskega parlamenta, ki naj odgovorno nadaljuje z reševanjem te problematike in usmerja države v aktivno izobraževanje za družbo nenasilja.
- Vsi ti projekti, ki se osredotočajo na medkulturno učenje, so lahko dobra osnova za spreminjanje družbene klime in posledično preprečevanje nasilja v družini.
Resolucijo so sprejele partnerke v projektu Nasilje v družini pri izobraženkah (Domestic Violence Met by Educated Women – projekt Grundtvig: učna partnerstva):
Alexandrina Niculescu, Asociatia Femeilor Universitare, Romunija
Patricia Aden, Deutscher Akademikerinnenbund e.V., Nemčija
Peter Krope, Zentrum für Konstruktive Erziehungswissenschaft, Nemčija
Elena Dingu-Kyrklund, Kyrklunds’ Consulting International, Švedska
Darja Teran, Združenje univerzitetnih izobraženk Slovenije, Slovenija
Raija Sollamo, Finnish Federation of University Women, Koordinatorka projekta DVMEW, Finska
Helsinki, 9. maj 2015
WORKSHOP 8th November, City Hotel, Ljubljana
First discussion group lead by Lidija Jerebic: INSTITUTIONAL HELP
Participants: Anna-Maija Sjöberg,
Elizabeta Baretić Kolar,
Lidija Jerebic: Slovenia is well provided with maternity homes, women shelters, crisis centres.
The first maternity home was established in 1989 by Karitas, out of the need of women in the street who were pressing for solutions. It was based on voluntary work. Its activities started at the time when SOS and other help-lines (several NGOs) started to develop and as Karitas home was the only one in Slovenia, it was filled in one month and packed all the time during 8 years until other shelters began to open. In Slovenia a network of maternity homes (known location), safe houses (hidden address) and crisis centres (accessible at all hours of the day, but only as a temporary shelter) has been established in the last 25 years.
Legend: red dot: Maternity home, blue dot: Safe house, green dot: Crisis centre
Women in Slovenia have a special characteristic –in cases of violence they want to be in a safe place, but without having to move to another location (children would have to change school, friends, question of her employment).
While the maternity home in Ljubljana is packed, women don’t want to go to the maternity home which is only 12 km away at Škofljica.
Question: How to approach women who have lived in a violent environment for a long time, yet it is hard for them to leave perpetrator even if they suffer threats of murder. In such a case her child is given a possibilty to go to a special shelter in Grosuplje called Paličica (a Stick) to get out of the violent environment, at least temporarily.
These services are developing together with the legislaton – with their programmes and experiences NGOs are now in position to educate the police and other governmental and NGO services related to combatting violence against women.
Uta Krope: According to 2013 statistics, there are about 350 shelters in Germany and
40 special houses (crisis centres), so every major city offers a possibility for women who need protection against violence. A special law for protection against violence as part of common law was adopted in 2011.
Various institutions have been in charge to develop educational programmes for those involved in combatting violence, the results are 14 elements of good practice, adopted by the Federal ministry.
Thise elements are:
- Clear statutory basis for better intervention and better protection against violence.
- Definition of domestic violence as the basis for institutional action.
- Clear political will and action plans.
- Establishing and applying guidelines, codes of good practice, training packs and leaflets for practical use.
- Safety-oriented practice.
- Special units in institutions to deal with cases of domestic violence.
- Specific protection and support services tailored to the needs of victims of domestic violence.
- Independent support services for children and adolescents living in the context of domestic violence.
- Provision of behaviour modification programmes for perpetrators of violence.
- Publicly available information about rights, intervention, protection and support possibilities in cases of domestic violence.
- Institutionalisation of cooperation between institutions and agencies.
- Developing and expanding skills – initial and inservice training and specialised units.
- Documenting and monitoring processes of change and the implementation of new practice.
- Evaluation of practice.
There is not one single solution to this problem, so cooperation between different services, agencies is essential. How the help is offered is very important.
For effective coordination of all who work together, their continuous training has to take place.
Anna-Maija Sjöberg: In Finland, there is intensive cooperation between official and unofficial organisations. Proper legislation has been adopted.
There are several programmes dedicated to this topic, services within the unofficial system work well.With all the experiences in their field they give advice to police and other relevant services. Materials for their work is still in the course of preparation.
The police who are called to cases of domestic violence, are trained to deal with the situation in the family according to priorities– first the most “bloody thing” and later subtler ones.
On the official side, the following professions are in charge to deal with domestic violence (DV):
the police, social workers
Professional help is offered also in other institutions:
1. Child health centres, which have existed in every village since the Second World War, include the question about domestic violence when examining a child.
2. School system includes services active regarding CV, it faces limited resources
3. Maternity homes (for homeless, abandoned women)
4. Shelter homes (we have one in Espoo) are facing harsher times because the government decided rather to give more help to families
5.. SOS telephone
6. Church (Lutheran 90 %, Russian Orthodox and Cratholic are the main ones) provides social workers, caretakers. There are programmes of family therapy where husbands are encouraged to participate together with their wives.
Violence started to be public concern specially in the last few years, since some family murders (not many) had large coveing in Finnish papers.
However, the constant question is how to reach all women that need help and this question has not been solved yet.
A note: Beating children is forbiden by the law.
Second discussion group lead by Raija Sollamo: INFORMAL HELP
Participants: Edith Lommerse
Elisabeth de Sotelo
Hedvika P. Kolman
Finland, many NGO working in this field. However the institutional help – municipalities and institutions are not as comprehensive. An important one is a Womensline; SOS they promise to help very soon. Example: An Afghan woman learned that according to Finnish Law violence is a reason for divorce and she sought help. The knowledge was important. Another point is that we as citizens are not very competent to give help. It is dissapointing that very many relatives and friends close their eyes, they know it is there but close their eyes, women wait for someone to ask. Somehow they take up the courage to ask…
Elisabeth, Germany. Most informal help is where people live together. Most of the help is from their informal network, where they receive another vision of what is happening. The informal society network is not like the university women… they are working to become more organized, from conscience raising groups. To speak about everything what was in their lives.
Patricia: Doctors and nurses are important as women come to the hospital with injuries and they are waiting to be asked what’s wrong. It is important to make doctors and nurses aware and help with documentation. After the first recognition the victim is handed over to the counseling. A friend can help better than a relative. A friend can ask more as she or he lacks the loyalty to the family. Also important to have a look at the mens’ position, that women can leave or a group can assist. For men a way to change the behaviour, how can we attack his behavior?
In Germany there are a lot of facilities for German women to go and find help. The biggest problem is migrant women as they don’t use the system that is there.
On primetime in Germany a film was on the television and after there was a discussion programme about the subject. Victim and certain views on this point shared the point.
In Germany, the legislation needs to be told especially to migrants so they know how it should work.
Dida: Romania is working in this field. A whole lot of problems the NGOs have major difficulties to cope with the neccessities in the field. They are now building NGO networks to cope with the difficulties including an SOS helpline. With the project they will publish a guide giving information, adresses and contact possibilities. They have now 20 organizations also including the National Womens Organization (Liliane Pagu). They hope that in this way they will be able to solve the problems. The state wants to support it, but they don’t have any money. Dida, the emmigrants from Romania create the problem elsewhere. In Romania the teachers are responsible for the class, it is voluntary to share the information and speak about it. It wasn’t succesfull.
It should be more in the media.
Elena: Sweden has a developed system of shelters. Sometimes the state pays and sometimes the NGOs. Less NGOs help is paid for by the state, the role of NGOs is rather complimentary as the government pays (local or state). Linus: The system is public, very few NGOs, Sweden doesn’t have many NGOs , no tradition. The money comes from the municipalities. Some are a bit hostile towards men. The problem is that the crime is not taken as seriously. Domestic Violence is a theme for both men and women. Also Gay lesbian, queer are sometimes more exposed to violence. It is getting more attention, needs to be part of the course. People should know where ever that they are not alone.
For Migrants women, a shelter for muslim women as they have major difficulties to admit they have a problem. A Muslim woman does not have the same kind of network, to help her.
The Netherlands, well equiped system of shelters and help. Women in the Netherlands are helped by the NGOs and churches a lot of the help is paid by the state. Neighbourhood courses for women and men. to become more assertive. Anonymous calling and doctors of trust to report on families with domestic violence and televison spots. Also violence against old people.
Romania, starting point is a friendly help from the people you trust. Very important to have that help. Question is how to help the victim. Especially if you know the family. Important that people know how to search for help and where to direct the victim to get institutional help. We have heard of cases where the situation is repeated… NGOs should help direct to help.
What to do if somebody does not want informal help, how to go about it. What can you do?
Alenka, Slovenia, first maternity house in our neighbourhood. But as an example a friend of my daughter is not in school anymore. Suddenly the boy was not in school, they were in a safe house. The man was in jail for a few days.. But now they are back together. She knows the husband from childhood, violence came from the women. They are now together again, the family seems to be working. For the problem that has arisen one needs to hear the two sides of the conflict.
Karin, I heard about the boy going to the women’s shelter. She did not know about the existence of shelters. It should be a more common topic in schools… Information how things are functioning and this could be a subject, what if things go wrong what is available, keep it on the curriculum.
Involvement in the state varies between countries, involvement of NGOs varies with it.
Suggestion is to involve pupils at secondary school and educate them as to what is available. Also media can play a significant role. As we should also educate migrant women about the legislation.
Another basic question is to how the friends as family members are seen as too much part of the system and the prevailing loyalties, can ask the vital question: are you okay, what is wrong and do you need help. That could prevent the escalation of domestic violence. Maybe that is also part of the outcome of the total project. So all participants dare to ask the question when they think a woman or man is subject to domestic violence.
Third discussion group, lead by Kaja Kosec, Zavod Za dialog (Institute For Dialogue)
YOUNG UNEMPLOYED EDUCATED WOMEN – IDENTIFYING PATHS TOWARDS SOLUTIONS
Participants: Daniela Ringkamp
Sanna S. Bergholm
Bojana Kos Grabar
Introduction to the topic:
Problem of Unemployment
Problem of Domestic Violence
|Disables or takes away economic freedom||It‘s often subtle, hence often not acknowledged – also by the institutions; how to ‚prove‘ emotional and psychological violence?|
|Disables (further) education||Causes shame and low self-perception|
|May negatively influence one‘s personality / hinders personal growth||Endangers personal, emotional, relational and sociological development|
|May pressure partnership||May grow to the pattern of behaviour|
Conclusions of the Workshop Young Unemployed Educated Women: Identifying Paths towards the Solutions
We have discussed the following themes:
(1) problems of unemployment in relation to women,
(2) relations between unemployment and violence,
(3) what is violence,
(4) do educated women meet (domestic) violence and
(5) who is responsible in victimizing women.
The exposed themes had led us to the following questioning:
Do men with the same education and/or profession get employed faster than women?
In terms of unemployment is there discrimination going on?
Employment brings loss of identity (essential issue)! Being unemployed is victimizing
Is unemployment stigmatizing?
Are we excluded because we are women? Are we excluded because we are educated? Are we excluded because we are young?
When questioning unemployment on institutional and societal level who is responsible? Who is persecuting?
Is violation happening? Where does violation start?
Do we need a defence?
Are we (women) victimizing ourselves?
Role of media in victimizing?
We have come to various conclusions; such as there is much more violence present than we are aware of, not only in domestic scope but also in business setting. Unemployment is a big issue, not only in Slovenia but also in other European countries. We have noted that unemployment is a taboo topic and strongly affects one’s personality, yet since so many people are now unemployed, unemployment has become more accepted and easier to talk about.
Some have argued that educated women get jobs harder. At the same time question was raised, do we confront gender issue or some women are not professional enough. We also have argued that educated women have different perspective on employment and it is hard(er) for them to accept unemployment, because they have put much effort into the studies. Not getting a job downgrades their lives and disables them to be free and independent economically.
We have question due to vast unemployment issue, who is responsible and if unemployment is victimizing women then who is a perpetrator. In this line, we addressed the same questions to media, which is as we argued probably most influential and elusive perpetrator. As women we are under attack daily, all the images of perfection that are bestowed onto us are victimizing. We determined that family background is important in developing personality, especially at times when we face issues as unemployment and media manipulation/abuse. We have noted that it is important how woman perceives herself on psychological, social and economic sphere and what her expectations are as educated woman.
At the discussion we have concluded that topics and terms of unemployment and violence are complex and need much time to think them through. Also we have pointed out, that it would be valuable to have an empirical research to show whether or not there are links between unemployment and educated women and if there are links between domestic violence and unemployed educated women.
The workshop ended with all three groups coming together and sharing their findings.
Gruntvig projekt 2013/14 = Gruntvig Project 2013/14
Nasilje v družini pri izobraženkah = Domestic Violence Met by Educated Women Project
Slovene conference will take place on 7 and 8 November 2014
Activities that preceded actual application of the project started already in 2011. More precise shaping of the project took place in June 2012 in Helsinki, at UWE (University Women of Europe) – conference participants expressed their interest to enter the project, some basic features were defined such as the theme, major points of interest, data to be collected, outcomes to be pursued. The subject also appears in the agendas of SUUW (Slovene Union of University Women) administrative board meetings.
Between 8-10 November 2012, there was a preparatory meeting in Kiel, Germany, which Slovene participants could not attend, being unsuccessful in applying for the mobility funds. However, we participated through Skype conference, so we received information on the proceedings: participating candidates were defined (Finland, Germany, Sweden, Romania, Slovenia, Bulgaria), their specific contributions discussed, further steps in preparing the project agreed. Planning of Skype meetings to check the progress of each participant and solve eventual problems. At SUUW board meetings we proceeded with defining our Slovene contribution to the project. The 2010 Slovene study on violence against women was examined.
Several Skype meetings with international partners followed, our progress with preparation of the project was discussed (17 Nov, 1 Dec, 15 Dec, 12 Jan 2013, 21 Jan, 26 Jan). Applications were prepared to be submitted to national agencies. Our application of the project was filed at Cmepius national agency in February 2013. Looking for partners in Slovenia – SUUW board members suggested possible partners and initiated connections with them (SOS help-line, Faculty of Social Work, DNK society, etc.)
Several lectures as part of our regular activities covered the subject of violence against women (Vlasta Nussdorfer: Violence in the past and today – paths of solving it – January 2013; dr. Darja Zaviršek: Faces of violence against women in Slovenia – May 2013).
Official information of successful application came in June 2013. SUUW continued recruiting potential Slovene partners for the project.
There were 3 mobilities to Sweden 2-6 October 2013 (2 SUUW members and a representative of SOS telefon). The first conference within the project presented problems of educated women – refugees from other countries and young females of immigrant families and their problems in Sweden; getting to know conference participants from different countries and their views of the subject through interviews. Representative of SOS help-line presented data on domestic violence against educated women in Slovenia which could be selected from the Slovene data collected so far on the topic. There was first introduction to ZKE (German) questionnaire.
SUUW membership and public was informed about the project at the public lecture carried out on 20 November 2013.
On 26 November 2013 in Ljubljana, the conference organized by Faculty of Social Work “Violence against women and mental health in the time of the economic crisis” was attended by 2 SUUW board members.
Further Skype meetings with international partners each month in preparations for the next conference.
In January our external partner SOS telefon disapproved of the questionnaire. SUUW managed to collect 10 (9 valid) ZKE questionnaires for the purpose of the project.
At the conference in Paderborn, Germany 21-22 March 2014: there were 3 Slovene participants. Medical, social and feminist views of the violence against women were the main points in presentations. Our problems with the ZKE questionnaire were discussed. Preparation of national questionnaires was assented.
On 2 April 2014 in Trubarjeva hiša literature, Ljubljana we attended presentation of the book “Violence against women in Slovenia”.
At SUUW board meetings in April, May and June we worked on our own questionnaire which resulted in the questionnaire published at 1ka. (https://www.1ka.si/a/44694). We also worked on the questionnaire referring to the problems of young unemployed educated women – the topic is our specific contribution to the project.
We recruited further active participants of the project within our membership.
Four mobilities to Romania were carried out 6th – 8th June 2014. The hosts presented their situation with restriction order, situation with women shelters, social work with disadvantaged children, new education opportunities for Roma women. Slovenia presented a new draft questionnaire.
SUUW board members had a couple of meetings in May and June 2014 with desired lecturers for the Slovene conference.Contacts were initiated with Homeless people centre in Kranj and Maternity home Karitas.
Other organizational work (programme and additional activities, accommodation, materials) will continue in the following months and will culminate in the Slovene conference, which will take place on 7 and 8 November 2014.